Alabama Statute 13A-3-23: Self-defense – Defense of others.
(a) A person is justified in using physical force upon another person in order to defend himself or herself or a third person from what he or she reasonably believes to be the use or imminent use of unlawful physical force by that other person, and he or she may use a degree of force which he or she reasonably believes to be necessary for the purpose. A person may use deadly physical force, and is legally presumed to be justified in using deadly physical force in self-defense or the defense of another person pursuant to subdivision (5), if the person reasonably believes that another person is:
(1) Using or about to use unlawful deadly physical force.
(2) Using or about to use physical force against an occupant of a dwelling while committing or attempting to commit a burglary of such dwelling.
(3) Committing or about to commit a kidnapping in any degree, assault in the first or second degree, burglary in any degree, robbery in any degree, forcible rape or forcible sodomy.
(4) Using or about to use physical force against an owner, employee, or other person authorized to be on business property when the business is closed to the public while committing or attempting to commit a crime involving death, serious physical injury, robbery, kidnapping, rape, sodomy, or a crime of a sexual nature involving a child under the age of 12.
(5) In the process of unlawfully and forcefully entering, or has unlawfully and forcefully entered, a dwelling, residence, business property, or occupied vehicle, or a federally licensed nuclear power facility, or is in the process of sabotaging or attempting to sabotage a federally licensed nuclear facility, or is attempting to remove, or has forcefully removed, a person against his or her will from any dwelling, residence, business property, or occupied vehicle when the person has a legal right to be there, and provided that the person using the deadly physical force knows or has reason to believe that an unlawful and forcible entry or unlawful and forcible act is occurring. The legal presumption that a person using deadly physical force is justified to do so pursuant to this subdivision does not apply if:
(a) The person against whom the defensive force is used has the right to be in or is a lawful resident of the dwelling, residence, or vehicle, such as an owner or lessee, and there is not an injunction for protection from domestic violence or a written pretrial supervision order of no contact against that person;
(b) The person sought to be removed is a child or grandchild, or is otherwise in the lawful custody or under lawful guardianship of, the person against whom the defensive force is used;
(c) The person who uses defensive force is engaged in an unlawful activity or is using the dwelling, residence, or occupied vehicle to further an unlawful activity; or
(d) The person against whom the defensive force is used is a law enforcement officer acting in the performance of his or her official duties.
(b) A person who is justified under subsection (a) in using physical force, including deadly physical force, and who is not engaged in an unlawful activity and is in any place where he or she has the right to be has no duty to retreat and has the right to stand his or her ground.
(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a), a person is not justified in using physical force if:
(1) With intent to cause physical injury or death to another person, he or she provoked the use of unlawful physical force by such other person.
(2) He or she was the initial aggressor, except that his or her use of physical force upon another person under the circumstances is justifiable if he or she withdraws from the encounter and effectively communicates to the other person his or her intent to do so, but the latter person nevertheless continues or threatens the use of unlawful physical force.
(3) The physical force involved was the product of a combat by agreement not specifically authorized by law.
(d) A person who uses force, including deadly physical force, as justified and permitted in this section is immune from criminal prosecution and civil action for the use of such force, unless the force was determined to be unlawful.
(e) A law enforcement agency may use standard procedures for investigating the use of force described in subsection (a), but the agency may not arrest the person for using force unless it determines that there is probable cause that the force used was unlawful.
Notes On Elements:
Essential elements of self-defense are: (1) the defendant must be free from fault; that is he must not say or do anything for the purpose of provoking a difficulty, nor must he be disregardful of the consequences in this respect of any wrongful word or act; (2) there must be a present impending peril to life or great bodily harm, either real or so apparent as to create the bona fide belief of an existing necessity, and the defendant must have been so impressed; (3) there must be no convenient or reasonable mode of escape by retreat or declining the combat. Hayes v. State, 225 Ala. 253, 142 So. 675, 1932 Ala. LEXIS 443 (Ala. 1932) also: Williams v. State, 26 Ala. 529, 163 So. 668, 1935 Ala. App. LEXIS 169 (Ala Ct. App.)
If a man can by running avoid the taking of human life, it is his solemn duty to do so, if by doing so he does not apparently increase his peril. Higdon v. State, 25 Ala. App. 209, 143 So. 213, 1932 Ala. App. LEXIS 169 (Ala. Ct. App. 1932)
Where the homicide occurred at the home of the defendant and within the curtilage of his dwelling, the doctrine of retreat need not be considered. Harris v. State, 25 Ala. App. 215, 143 So. 242, 1932 Ala. App. LEXIS 172 (Ala. Ct App. 1932)
Alabama Statute 13A-3-25 Defense of Property; trespass.
A person in lawful possession or control of premises, as defined in Section 13A-3-20, or a person who is licensed to be thereon, may use physical force upon another person when and to the extent that reasonably believes it necessary to prevent or terminate what he reasonably believes to be the commission or attempted commission of a criminal trespass by the other person in or upon such premises.
A person may use deadly physical force under the circumstances set forth in subsection (a) of this section only:
In defense of a person, as provided in Section 13A-3-23; or
When he reasonably believes it necessary to prevent the commission of arson in the first or second degree by the trespasser.
Alabama Statute 13A-3-26 Defense of property; theft or criminal mischief.
A person is justified in using physical force, other than deadly physical force, upon another person when and to the extent that he reasonably believes it to be necessary to prevent or terminate the commission or attempted commission by the other person of theft or criminal mischief with respect to property other than premises as defined in Section 13A-3-20.